There are three components: descent; self-identification; and community acceptance. It has nothing to do with skin colour.
Identifying individual students' learning strengths and engaging them is as important for Indigenous students as it is for all other students.
The answer is — both. Acknowledge and support the background, cultures and identity of students. But be cautious in your assumptions.
Health issues affect anyone's learning, and ill health is more common among Indigenous students than others. Teachers have a role to play, but their primary responsibility is pedagogical.